Skip Nav
#
Survey Research and Questionnaires

##
Additional Resources

## Questionnaire design

❶International Journal of Public Health.
## Navigation menu

## Main Topics

### Privacy Policy

### Privacy FAQs

### About Our Ads

### Cookie Info

Questionnaires can be thought of as a kind of written interview. They can be carried out face to face, by telephone, computer or post. Questionnaires provide a relatively cheap, quick and efficient way of obtaining large amounts of information from a large sample of people. Data can be collected relatively quickly because the researcher would not need to be present when the questionnaires were completed.

This is useful for large populations when interviews would be impractical. However, a problem with questionnaire is that respondents may lie due to social desirability. Most people want to present a positive image of themselves and so may lie or bend the truth to look good, e. Questionnaires can be an effective means of measuring the behavior, attitudes, preferences, opinions and, intentions of relatively large numbers of subjects more cheaply and quickly than other methods.

An important distinction is between open-ended and closed questions. Often a questionnaire uses both open and closed questions to collect data. This is beneficial as it means both quantitative and qualitative data can be obtained. Closed questions structure the answer by only allowing responses which fit into pre-decided categories. Data that can be placed into a category is called nominal data. The category can be restricted to as few as two options, i.

Closed questions can also provide ordinal data which can be ranked. This often involves using a continuous rating scale to measure the strength of attitudes or emotions. Closed questions have been used to research type A personality e. They can be economical. This means they can provide large amounts of research data for relatively low costs. Therefore, a large sample size can be obtained which should be representative of the population, which a researcher can then generalize from. The questions are standardized.

All respondents are asked exactly the same questions in the same order. Instead, researchers will randomly select geographic areas for example, counties , then randomly select households within these areas. This creates a cluster sample, in which respondents are clustered together geographically. For example, a researcher may want to compare survey responses of African-Americans and Caucasians.

To ensure that there are enough Afrian-Americans in the survey, the researcher will first identify the African-Americans in the population and then randomly select a sample of African-Americans. Measurement error is the difference between the target population's characteristics and the measurement of these characteristics in a survey.

There are two types of measurement error: For example, a researcher may administer a survey about marital happiness.

However, some respondents may have had a fight with their spouse the evening prior to the survey, while other respondents' spouses may have cooked the respondent's favorite meal. The survey responses will be affected by the random day on which the respondents were chosen to participate in the study. With random error, the positive and negative influences on the survey measure balance out. Respondents should give informed consent before participating in a survey.

In order for respondents to give informed consent,. It is absolutely imperative that researchers keep respondents' identities confidential. To ensure confidentiality, researchers should not link respondents' identifiers to their survey responses when using data. Common identifiers include names, social security numbers, addresses, and telephone numbers. Anonymity is an even stronger safeguard of respondent privacy. If a researcher assures anonymity, it means that the researcher is unable to link respondents' names to their surveys.

Anonymity Confidentiality Informed Consent. Survey sampling is particularly useful when the population of interest is very large or dispersed across a large geographic area. Please enable JavaScript in your browser. Johannes van Kessel Publishing. The total design method. Experiments in telephone introductions". Kwantitatieve Methoden , 22, 41— Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods. Evidence from the multi-city study of urban inequality". Findings from a household survey in Mexico".

International Journal of Public Opinion Research. Evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up". International Journal of Public Health. Categorical data Contingency table Level of measurement Descriptive statistics Exploratory data analysis Multivariate statistics Psychometrics Statistical inference Statistical models Graphical Log-linear Structural. Audience measurement Demography Market research Opinion poll Public opinion.

Mean arithmetic geometric harmonic Median Mode. Central limit theorem Moments Skewness Kurtosis L-moments. Grouped data Frequency distribution Contingency table. Pearson product-moment correlation Rank correlation Spearman's rho Kendall's tau Partial correlation Scatter plot. Sampling stratified cluster Standard error Opinion poll Questionnaire. Observational study Natural experiment Quasi-experiment. Z -test normal Student's t -test F -test.

Bayesian probability prior posterior Credible interval Bayes factor Bayesian estimator Maximum posterior estimator. Pearson product-moment Partial correlation Confounding variable Coefficient of determination. Simple linear regression Ordinary least squares General linear model Bayesian regression.

Regression Manova Principal components Canonical correlation Discriminant analysis Cluster analysis Classification Structural equation model Factor analysis Multivariate distributions Elliptical distributions Normal.

Spectral density estimation Fourier analysis Wavelet Whittle likelihood. Cartography Environmental statistics Geographic information system Geostatistics Kriging. Category Portal Commons WikiProject. Executive opinions Delphi method Sales force polling Consumer surveys.

Retrieved from " https: Forecasting Survey methodology Psychometrics Quantitative research Product testing. Articles with Curlie links. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 12 August , at

Questionnaires can be classified as both, quantitative and qualitative method depending on the nature of questions. Specifically, answers obtained.

Survey research is a commonly used method of collecting information about a population of interest. There are many different types of surveys, several ways to administer them, and many methods .

Research Methods» Questionnaire. Questionnaire. By Saul McLeod, updated A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Questionnaires can be thought of as a kind of written interview. They can be carried out face to face, by telephone, computer or. The essence of survey method can be explained as “questioning individuals on a topic or topics and then describing their responses” (Jackson, , p).

This article shows a sample questionnaire with insert notes for every section. A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys. Survey methodology includes instruments or.