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What is Green Marketing?
Green Marketing
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It is continuing to grow in popularity—in large part due to the fact that customers are increasingly integrating their environmental values into their purchasing decisions. More and more customers want to support companies that incorporate sustainability efforts into their product and service offerings. Effective marketing provides the information customers want—and need—to make informed purchasing decisions, in a message that communicates the benefits of the product or service to the customer.

If sustainability is important to customers, green marketing can be highly effective. Companies large and small are realizing the benefits of going green, and integrating that into their marketing messages. Successful marketing is customer-centric, so if sustainability and eco-friendly products are important to customers, green marketing may be effective.

Green is becoming more and more mainstream—becoming more important to increasing numbers of people. Companies can determine if environmental concerns are important to customers by simply asking them. At the very least, customers will appreciate the interest in their opinion, and a great new opportunity to meet customer needs may be uncovered. Companies have been touting the green benefits of their products and initiatives for quite some time. And, see the concept as problematic and troublesome Krate, , p.

As SME marketing continues to be conceptualised in the literature, new forms of marketing continue to emerge Wagner, The last three decades have seen a progressive increase in consumer environmental consciousness and the environment shifts from a fringe, to a mainstream issue Kalafatis et al. The shift has been driven by different factors including, awareness of environmental problems, and the rise in pressure groups and media coverage.

Proactive marketers have already implemented long-term environmental strategies in order to utilise this new phenomenon. The literature on green marketing shows a variety of understanding. Polonsky and Prakash indicate green marketing initiatives include all activities designed to satisfy the consumer intended needs and wants with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment.

It is the facilities that specialise in experiencing nature or operating in a fashion that minimises environmental impact May, ; Troumbis, ; Ingram and Dust Certain organisations believe to have a moral obligation to be more socially responsible Davies, , for others it is an opportunity to achieve objectives Shearer ; Keller , or the aim of reducing cost in the long-term Azzone and Manzini The growing consumer interest in green products and services, in addition a pronounced willingness to pay for green features Roper Organisation ; Mintel ; Worcester, , has resulted in marketers using this knowledge to enhance the credibility of their marketing; in other words transforming crisis into opportunities, using the green philosophy theory and applying it to communication tools May et al.

There is no shortage of agreement within the literature that a well-practiced green marketing initiative can lead to competitive advantage Leonidou and Leonidou, ; Banerjee, ; Porter and Van der Linde, Successful green organisations have learned to go the extra mile, beyond the niche market of only dealing with pure green products by embracing innovative practices and approaches Dean and Pacheco, The initiative of going beyond, has seen some companies develop products and services that create environmental value and in addition, combine these values with a sense of functional and emotional appeal May et al.

Given the advantages of green initiatives as outlined in previous paragraphs, it is quite predictable that the drawback of such concept could be significant. In a recent paper by Dean and Pacheco it is suggested when practiced poorly, green marketing could lead to very disappointing outcomes for the organisation, or worse, consumer backlash.

Organisations fail to understand the implications, thus, never fully engaging with the concept Makower, ; Davis, ; Said, Indeed, organisations must be very cautious when deciding to employ green marketing; the use of green initiatives must not mislead consumers, the industry or breach any government regulations Polonsky, Mayer et al p. Previous studies suggest, general business strategy reflects upon a dichotomy between reactive and proactive strategies Argon-Correa, ; Larson et al.

A reactive strategy is known to be when organisations respond to changes as they develop in the external environment Sandberg, ; Bennett, Conversely, a proactive strategy mirrors the organisation being a step ahead in responding to external threats Jauch and Glueck, , and in addition creating new opportunities in the environment Johannessen et al.

The research is used as a premise by McDaniel and Rylander to propose two main approaches to green marketing; the first is a defensive strategy and the second being assertive strategy.

A study by Peattie and Crane asserted that green marketing over the years has suffered due to what is often a defensive, short-term orientation. The issue being the failure of firms with a green vision, however their lack of long-term success could be easily due to a sales orientation with the absence of accurate marketing research and furthermore, ineffective use of marketing communication to allow the education of customers. An assertive approach, in contrast requires greater level of resources tends to be more expensive and risky , with more organisational commitment including internal policies that have great reflection of the level of management, employee involvement, and is more long term in orientation McDaniel and Rylander, ; Peattie and Crane, Additionally, Peattie and Crane suggest a genuinely assertive green marketing strategy will enable focus on the needs of current and future generation of customers but also other stakeholders through innovative solutions.

A contrary explanation by Mendleson and Polonsky indicate green marketing could be developed through strategic alliances. An organisation forming a strategic alliance with an environmental group significantly increases the credibility of their products and services including associated claims Mendleson and Polonsky, The customer is four times more likely to believe claims made by environmental groups than those of the organisation Australian National Opinion Polls, A green marketing initiative does not only have a positive impact on the environment Iravania et al.

For this reasons the topic has an even greater relevance to SMEs Darcy et al. And so this study therefore aims to explore aspects of green marketing theory and practices that could be applied in a small business context.

A case study of EST Marketing is proposed. A B2B business development agency based in Reading founded in with five initial employees. As a true extension to some of the worlds leading IT vendors such as Dell and IBM, multinational companies selling personal computers, network switches, data storage amongst others. EST Marketing has grown their workforce to 50 employees in order to sustain client needs.

There is an intrinsic sense of family orientation regarding the business culture, supportive of employees with kids and flexible working hours if needed. It was found amongst the employees the highest qualification held by the majority was A-Levels. Two out of six of the management team held a university degree. Moreover, to meet different client needs, the organisation offers two distinct services:. EST Marketing is well placed to promote and support the growth and awareness of client products and services over the phone with almost half of the workforce representing the organisation as telemarketers.

The organisation works proactively with clients to create bespoke telemarketing campaigns with maximum impact; resulting to the achievement of business objectives. Having been in operation for almost 13 years serving as a true extension to clients, the organisation offers regular courses crafted and based on real life experiences in the world of sales.

In addition, depending on the client needs bespoke sales training is available upon request. Following a cohesive review of the academic literature and primary research. A contextual framework has been developed to illustrate the explored variables and their relationships Miles and Huberman, Thus, due to these constraints small businesses fail to understand and implement new forms of marketing Carson, ; Gilmore et al.

The conceptual framework takes into consideration both the advantages and the complexity of adopting green concepts. The literature throws up many ways of adopting green marketing, however this study puts emphasis on defensive, assertive and strategic alliances, which Mendleson and Polonsky indicate, to be the most suitable in developing green marketing.

Given the shortage of disagreement within the literature regarding the utilization of green marketing by SMEs as part of their business strategy Darcy et al. As a result, research will be conducted appreciating the view of Grain and Leverton of the importance of empirical evidence to fulfill a gap in the literature. To however ensure the research undertaken contributes to the academia, below are three questions articulated by the study. Following on from the research questions outlined above, Saunders et al suggests the importance of choosing the appropriate research design to ensure an effective research outcome.

Thus, the research will use a qualitative, exploratory approach, putting emphasis on examining of participant interpretation. Moreover, several authors have indicated a qualitative approach to be the most suitable when researching marketing phenomenon within the SME context Hill, ; Hill and Wright, , offering the opportunity for deep dialogue with participants Moriaty et al.

As a result, obtaining credible value judgment and subjective opinions Dibb and Simkins ; To assist with the exploratory research Saunders et al indicates the use of one-to-one interviews as a credible way in exploring a subject. Thus, the research will opt for one-to-one interviews with all participants. In addition taking into consideration Simpson et al. In-depth semi-structured interviews will be will conducted; with a list of questions to be asked, however the structure of each interview may vary Blumberg et al.

Brayman and Bell further, suggest the order in which the researcher ask the questions will entirely depend on the flow of the conversation. The use of semi-structured interviews according to Saunders et al.

Bryman and Bell add, participants will use words and statements in way that if probed, can add significance and depth to the data obtained.

Conversely, it is vital the implication of semi structured interviews to be taken into consideration. Silverman , suggest most researchers mistakenly fail to realise the way in which they interact with interviewees can have an affect on the data collected.

In support of such argument Saunders et al emphasize there to be different forms of bias. The interviewer being the first cause, where a behavior or tone can have a significant impact on the responses received. Furthermore, it is also suggested bias can occur through the interpretation of responses Easterby-smith et al. The second cause of bias relates to the interviewee.

The intrusive process of taking part in an interview is acknowledged, especially in the case of semi structured interviews Quinlan, Despite the interviewees willing to take part in an interview, they may practically be very sensitive to taking part in the exploration of certain themes Bryman and Bell, An argument supported by Silverman suggesting interviewees may detest, or refuse to elaborate on issues in which the researcher chooses to explore.

As a result only a partial picture of the situation will be given, where the respondent cast him or herself in a socially desirable role Saunders et al. It is imperative every factor that could affect the data collected to be considered. Qualitative Services - Related. Semiotics Research and Analysis Text Analytics. Computer Hardware Computer Software. Multi-Country Studies Worldwide Capabilities. Search By Company Name: September 18, , 12 PM - 1 PM.

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Green marketing subsumes greening products as well as greening firms. including product modification. promotion) of the traditional marketing mix. systems or processes). green marketing is the marketing .

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Marketing research in general has been dominated by the characteristics of larger organisations (Iravania et al., ). Moreover, much of the research on green marketing has been within the confinements of larger organisations in the B2C sector opposed to the little or no research into green marketing in the context of SMEs in the B2B sector. Explore the latest articles, projects, and questions and answers in Green Marketing, and find Green Marketing experts.

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Research Paper on Green Marketing Ameet Sao, M.B.A.(Assistant Professor) Shaheed Sukhdev College Of Business Studies (University Of Delhi) Abstract: Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular important in the modern market. Introduction Green Marketing is a broad term covering all aspects of marketing decision making that keep the ecology and environment in marketing works on two issues that are - To check the misuse of natural resources.