Starting with the sixth day Sasthi , the goddess is welcomed, festive Durga worship and celebrations begin in elaborately decorated temples and pandals hosting the statues.
The festival ends of the tenth day of Vijaya Dashami , when with drum beats of music and chants, Shakta Hindu communities start a procession carrying the colorful clay statues to a river or ocean and immerse them, as a form of goodbye and her return to divine cosmos and Mount Kailash.
The festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century.
Durga is an ancient deity of Hinduism, according to archeological and textual evidence available. However, the origins of Durga Puja are unclear and undocumented. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga Puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century.
A key text associated with Durga Puja observations is Devi Mahatmya , which is recited during the festival. Durga was likely well established before the time this Hindu text was composed, which scholars variously estimate to between and CE. Durga calmly understands and counters the evil in order to achieve her solemn goals. Durga, in her various forms, appears as an independent deity in the Epics period of ancient India, that is the centuries around the start of the common era.
The prominent mention of Durga in this popular epics may have led to her worship. The Indian texts that mention the Durga Puja festival are inconsistent. The King Suratha legend found in some version of the Puranas mention it to be a spring festival, while the Devi-Bhagavata Purana and two other Shakta Puranas mention it to be an autumn festival. The more ancient Ramayana manuscripts are also inconsistent.
Versions of Ramayana found in North, West and South India describe the Hindu god Rama to be remembering the Surya the Sun god before his battle with the demon Ravana, but the Bengali manuscripts of Ramayana such as by the 15th century Krttivasa describe Rama to be worshipping Durga.
According to Pranab Bandyopadhyay, the worship of fierce warrior goddess Durga, and her darker and more violent manifestation Kali , became very popular in Bengal region during and after the medieval era Muslim invasion. From the medieval period up through present day, the Durga Puja has celebrated the goddess with performance arts and as a social event, while maintaining the religious worship.
The Durga Puja festival is a ten-day event, of which the last five mark the popular practices. The festival begins with Mahalaya , a day where Shakta Hindus remember the loved ones who have died, as well the advent of Durga. On the seventh day Saptami , eighth Ashtami and ninth Navami , the goddess along with Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha and Kartikeya are revered and these days mark the main Puja worship with recitation of the scriptures, the legends of Durga in Devi Mahatmya and social visits by families to elaborately decorated and lighted up temples and pandals theatre like stages.
Om you are rice [wheat The Durga festival is, in part, a post-monsoon harvest festival observed on the same days in Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, as those in its other traditions.
According to David Kinsley, a professor of Religious Studies specializing on Hindu goddesses, this probably signifies the Hindu belief that the goddess is "not merely the power inherent in the growth of crops but the power inherent in all vegetation".
The festival is a major social and public event in eastern and northeastern states of India, where it dominates the religious life, with temporary stage pandal built in community squares, roadside shrines and large Durga temples. However, it is also observed by some Shakta Hindus as a private, home-based festival. This is typically also the day that the eyes of all deities on the Durga Puja stage are painted, bringing them to a life like appearance.
The day two to five continue the remembrance and preparation to other aspects manifestations of goddess Durga, such as Kumari goddess of fertility , Mai mother , Ajima grandmother , Lakshmi goddess of wealth and in some regions of the Saptamatrikas seven mothers or Navadurga nine aspects of Durga.
The sixth day launches the major festivities and social celebrations. It is called Sasthi literally, sixth , the goddess is welcomed, festive Durga worship and celebrations begin in elaborately decorated temples and pandals hosting the statues.
The puja rituals are long and complicated. Three days of Mantras words for spiritual transformation , Shlokas verse chants and Arati prayer and offerings are made, which include Vedic chants and multiple recitations of the Devi Mahatmya text in Sanskrit. According to the sloka, Durga is omnipresent as the embodiment of power, nourishment, memory, forbearance, faith, forgiveness, intellect, wealth, emotions, desires, beauty, satisfaction, righteousness, fulfillment and peace.
Dhunuchi Naach, a dance performed with dhunachi incense burner is an integral part of the rituals. Drummers called dhakis , carrying large leather-strung dhak create music, people dance and complete the final day of worship called aarati. The entire process of creation of the sculptures murti from the collection of clay to the ornamentation is a ceremonial process. Though the festival is observed post monsoon harvest, the artisans begin making the statues months before, during the summer.
The process begins with prayer to Ganesha and to the materials such as bamboo frames in which the statue are cast. Clay, or local soil collected from different parts of the region, forms the base. This choice is a religious tradition wherein Durga, as the creative energy and material, is believed to be present everywhere and everything in the universe.
The clay base is combined with straw, kneaded then molded into cast made from bamboo. This is set like any clay pot, layered to a final shape, cleaned, and polished when ready.
A layer of vegetable fiber called jute , mixed in with clay, is attached to the top to prevent the statue from cracking in the months ahead. The heads of the statues are more complex, and usually cast separately.
The goddesses are dressed in fine silk saris, shown bejeweled and put into a pandal. The procedures and proportions of statue pratima or murti are described in arts-related Sanskrit text of Hinduism, such as the Vishvakarma sastra. The traditional idols, states Christopher Chapple, are made of biodegradable materials such as "straw, clay, resin, and wood". Environmental activists have raised concerns about the paint used to produce the statue, stating that the heavy metals in these paints pollute rivers when the statues are immersed at the end of the Durga festival.
Brighter colors that are also biodegradable and eco-friendly, as well as the historic tradition-based natural colors are typically more expensive.
Shakta Hindu communities mark the slaying of buffalo demon and victory of Durga with a symbolic or actual sacrifice. Most communities prefer symbolic sacrifice, where a statue of asura demon made of flour, or equivalent, is immolated and smeared with vermilion to remember the blood that had necessarily been spilled during the war.
In other communities, an actual animal is sacrificed, mainly at temples of Goddess such as Bhavani or Kali. This involves slaying of a fowl, goat or a male water buffalo. In the past this ritual was considered a rite of passage into manhood and readiness as a warrior. The ritual is directed by a priest.
Months before the start of Durga puja, youth members of a community organize as a team, collect donations, engage priests and artisans, buy votive materials and help build a theme-based stage called pandal. The Durga statue is designed from clay and colors by the commissioned artisans.
The design and decoration is a team effort involving artists, architects and community representatives hosting it. The budget required for such theme-based pujas is significantly higher than traditional pujas. These attract crowds of visitors. The preparations and the building of pandals are a significant arts-related economic activity, often attracting major sponsors. The growth of competitiveness in theme pandals have escalated costs and scale of Durga Puja in eastern states of India.
Some communities question the billboards, the economic competition behind the Durga Puja between communities, and seek return to basics. In , a foot statue of Durga attracted numerous devotees, with some estimates placing visitors at one million.
TV and radio channels telecast Puja celebrations. Bengali and Oriya weekly magazines bring out special issues for the Puja known as "Pujabarshiki" or "Sharadiya Sankhya". These contain the works of many writers both established and upcoming and are thus much bigger than the regular issues.
Some notable examples are Anandamela , Shuktara, Desh, Sarodiya Anandabazar Patrika , Sananda, Nabakallol, Bartaman  All major local news publications are closed on the last day of the festivities. There is enormous variation in worship practices and rituals associated with Durga Puja, as is the case with other Hindu festivals. Different types of Durga Puja are readily practiced in the same neighborhood, as well as regionally, with these variations accepted across temples, pandals and within families.
Some Puja are flamboyant, some are simple. The style and nature of the Puja varies from being Vedic, or Puranic, or Tantric, or a combination of these. The non-Bengali Durga Puja tends to be essentially Vedic srauta wherein the melodies of Vedic hymns are sung, but it too incorporates esoteric elements making the Puja an example of a Vaidik-Tantric practice. Historical evidence suggests that the Durga Puja has evolved over time, becoming more elaborate, social and creative. The festival has been a domestic puja, a form of practice that remains popular.
Durga Puja is also practiced in the sarvajanin public form, where communities get together, pool their resources and effort to set up pandals , lighting decorations etc. Another set of sources suggest that a Bengali landlord named Kamsanarayan held a megashow in , or by others in late 16th century Bengal. The city is decked up with festive lights, loudspeakers play popular songs as well as recitation of mantras by priests, thousands of beautiful pandals are erected by communities in cities, towns and villages across the state, but particularly in Kolkata.
The roads become overcrowded with hundreds of thousands of revellers, devotees and pandal-hoppers visiting the pandals on Puja days. Flowers and sweets are offered to them. They are dressed in fine clothes and decked with beautiful ornaments. During the Puja the poor are fed, alms are distributed to the people.
At various Puja pandals, the worship of Mother Durga is being performed both by the rich and the poor, with subscriptions raised for the purpose. The Vijaya Dashami is considered to be an auspicious day.
On the day people visit their relatives. The people of the trading classes begin their new year from this day. At some placed Ramlila is staged and Ravan is killed on the Dashami day. There are various stories connected with the Vijaya Dashami. Since then it has been celebrated every year on this day. Another story is that one King Suratha performed the Puja on this day. The shopping season begins nearly one month before the Durga Puja festival.
Puja bonus extra money apart from the salary is given to the employees of both government and private organizations, in Kolkata, since the bread-winner of the family brings in clothes and furbishes for the home, during the festive season. Pre-pooja bargain sales are displayed by shops, as they cash in a lot during the festival.
Every household prepares itself to welcome the season, with great enthusiasm. Pre-Puja Celebrations Celebrations of the festival start with Mahalaya, the first phase of the waxing moon in Aswin. The festive mood builds up in the people, when Dhakis drummers belonging to the countryside start gathering near the city. The local Puja organizers are attracted by the feathered drums played by the drummers. Making Of Idol While the festival was celebrated within the families some times back, it has taken the shape of a community festival, celebrated at Puja pandals.
A place in the north Kolkata — Kumartuli is famous for the production of beautiful idols made of clay. This is the region, where expert artisans show their dexterity of making idols of Goddess Durga, the demon Mahisasura, Lord Kartik, Lord Ganesha, Goddess Saraswati and Goddess Lakshmi, required for the festival. Many people are expert at making magnificent Puja pandal, the covered huge stage for the Puja , by using paper, wood, bamboos, clothes and other materials. They come up with a number of innovative ideas every year and cash in a lot of money by erecting the Puja pandals that comprise of mesmerizing art work.
Some pandals are also built as the replica of world-famous structures. The festival picks up pace on the sixth day — Maha Shashti. The long and details rituals of the Puja start on the seventh day.
Durga Puja Essay 6 ( words) Introduction. Durga Puja is a religious festival during which a ceremonial worship of goddess Durga is performed. It is an important festival of India. It is a traditional occasion which reunites people into the one Indian culture and customs.
We worship goddess Durga because she is shakti - strength. This is meant to help us think about our positive inner selves. We worship goddess Lakshmi because she gives wealth and prosperity.
Description of Durga Puja. The Puja is celebrated for ten days, but the image is installed on the seventh day. During the last three days the Puja is celebrated with great pomp and gaiety. The images are of different designs and sizes. Goddess Durga is referred to as the Goddess of Power (Shakti). The Durga puja starts from the seventh day of the moon. Before the three days, the images of these gods and goddess are worship along with their mother goddess Durga. The .
essay on durga puja Introduction The Durga Puja is a festival of Hindu, which celebrated by the Hindu people all over the world and especially it is celebrated in Bengal. durga puja Essay One of the biggest social events of India, Durga Puja is considered the main festival for Bengalis. It is a ten-day carnival in West Bengal, the eastern state of India.