This is where Meursault finally begins to transform from a passive person into someone who forms their own opinions. Meursault is content being a spectator in life and is aware that he does exist, however he does not know if everyone else exists as well and in account of that he forces himself to be isolated and detached from society since he does not know how to handle emotions. In the beginning Meursault feels no personal guilt for killing the Arab yet he somehow knows that he has done something wrong within himself.
When he goes to jail, the protagonist seems to come off as a free being rather than outside of it. Even though he is lacking in emotions and he lives in a prison, Meursault is free from societal oppression. With all the questioning he receives from the jury as well as his own lawyer, he is force to think for himself why society the way it does and how does religion goes into it. Meursault now makes his own pathway by making his own choices on how to look at life and what is meaningful to him in it.
He finally accepts that life itself lacks rationality and meaning anyway and does not need any form of order to find meaning. An interesting thing to note is that Meursault sees his execution as his graduation ceremony of his new acquired philosophy which would be his diploma. Meursault is aware of this ability, and that this is what defines his revelation.
Society believes Meursault to be immoral because of his detachment and he is put on trial more for his abnormal characteristics than his crime. Although at first, Meursault uses his isolation to live a simple life because it is the path of least resistance he also uses his detachment from society to finally understands that he has the ability to make his own choices. We will write a custom essay sample on. Personal and Traditional hen one considers the many aspects of one's "inner life," it becomes clear that most, if not all of them are based upon some philosophical conception.
Psychologists have long known that individuals, who have a strong sense of their life's purpose, as well as a spiritual, religious, or ethical viewpoint, tend to live longer, healthier lives.
Further, they are less likely to suffer from depressive episodes Hassad, Although each person's individual "philosophy of life" is different, there are some well-known philosophical interpretations that can shed some light upon common attitudes concerning personal identity.
Although there are several ways in which one can interpret the meaning of life and personal identity, perhaps one of the most useful steps one can take in the process is to recognize…… [Read More]. Clinical Psychology Krzysztof Kieslowski's a. We are engaged in what happened then. We are the same ones who were involved in the action; the memory brings us back as acting and experiencing there and then. Without memory and the displacement it brings we would not be fully actualized as selves and as human beings, for good and for ill Jacek is very clearly stuck in a place in his mind where he believes that he was to blame for what really happened.
He was there and he remembers it as such and so it is so. The other element that feeds this is his imagination. According to Sokolowski, memory and imagination are structurally very alike and it is easy for one to slip into the other. The question is whether or not Jacek sees his true self in that memory or if it is an imagined being of himself.
This matters because if Jacek…… [Read More]. Tobias Wolff Disagrees With Others. The only reason to continue living is to accept and transcend the absurdity with personal scorn and strength. Camus is overwhelmingly concerned with the impact of his ideas on everyday life -- coping with the severe and confusing realities of everyday existence.
Based on all of this, Camus asks, in the face of such defeat can a person be actually be happy? It is the only reality that a person has. In this world, an individual must confront the limitations of knowledge.
I don't know whether this world has a meaning that transcends it. But I know that I cannot know that meaning and that it is impossible for me just now to know it.
What can a meaning outside my condition mean to me? I can understand only in human terms I do not want to found anything on the incomprehensible. I want to know whether…… [Read More]. Psychology and Politics Example. My Mortality and the Meaning of My Life. Aside from humorous attempts to explain the meaning of life such as Monty Python's movie The Meaning of Life, the question is a serious one.
It cuts to the core of every human life, causing the individual to question his or her purpose and mode of living. Many people look to religious guidance as a means of discovering meaning in life, and religion remains the most effective way of providing people with a roadmap. Even if the absolute meaning of life is not revealed, we can at least learn to accept that God has a plan and that plan is inherently meaningful. Philosophers, however, have debated the efficacy of religion's ability to provide life with meaning.
Existentialism is the…… [Read More]. Educational Theory and Philosophy in. Nearing the end of the s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it Greene, Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied Greene, All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed.
This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]. Human Beings Make Sense of Things in. Human Beings Make Sense of Things In the earlys, Edmund Husserl sought to provide psychology with a truly scientific basis, not by copying the physical sciences but through the description of conscious experiences. This would be a truly humanistic psychology, grounded in human life and experience rather than materialistic and mechanistic theories like functionalism and behaviorism.
Karl Jaspers called for a psychology that would describe phenomena such as "hallucinations, delusions, dreams, expressions, motor activity, and gestures" for the "person as a whole" Churchill and Wertz, , p. This holistic or Gestalt psychology is dedicated to the search for the authentic self, and to heal the "hollow' men and women of our time who have lost touch with themselves" Churchill and Wertz, p.
Intentionality is one of the key assumptions of phenomenological psychology in which "experience must be grasped holistically and a relationship in which the subject relates to…… [Read More].
Happiness Except the Simple Harmony. When I see inequality in the world, I am visibly moved and affected. The only thing that makes me feel better is knowing that in America, we do value equality and many groups have been able to attain equality under the law on a collective level as well as respect on an individual level.
Introspection is a value that I deem extremely important and I believe it comes from a variety of sources from my parents to Oprah Winfrey and her progeny. My parents repeatedly advised me that it is alright to make mistakes as long as we reflect upon them and find a way to learn and grow from the errors of our ways.
Furthermore, I have a closet addiction to watching self-help shows, buying self-help books, and following self-help websites. Inside of me is a budding psychologist who finds great pleasure in finding out the real emotional process…… [Read More]. Che Guevara Ernesto Che Guevara. Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of.
Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were: To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…… [Read More].
Moral Legal Political and Practical. The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose.
An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal. Sexual Politics Loom Large in. Every aspect of sociology is somehow affected by sexual politics and this can be seen in every postmodern representation of sexuality. Media is particularly dependant on sexual politics as a thematic representation and as a guiding force for human emotion.
This is particularly true with regard to dramatic representations in film. The two films discussed above can be seen as examples of this thesis and illuminate both postmodernism and sexual politics in the modern world. Affinities between Art and Film. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits.
The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological Kevin. Humanism Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started Corbett, It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.
Soldiers Came Back From World. Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique. About film features and shorts were produced under this broad theme in the s and early s, explains the 50s B-Movie website. As Paul Michael comments, "n a sheer statistical basis, the number of fantasy and horror films of the s Kafka's Metamorphosis the Use of Symbolism in. Glatzer, philosopher Albert Camus once said that "the whole of Kafka's art consists in compelling the reader to re-read him," and since the interpretations of Kafka are many, this inevitably leads to a return to the story itself "in the hope of finding guidance from within" This internal "guidance" is related to many elements of fiction, such as metaphor, characterization, plot and theme, yet with a single reading of Kafka's the Metamorphosis, written during late November and early December of and published in October of , one can easily recognize that the use of symbolism is the dominant trait and "guidance" for the reader, due to Kafka's extraordinary ability to transcend reality and create a world that could only exist in the realms of the supernatural or the human subconscious mind.
Essayist Eliseo…… [Read More]. Death Penalty There are many situations and concerns in the world that require using ethical thought. There are many issues we read about an learn about when we have to ask ourselves what we believe in. It is the responsibility of all people to explore these issues so that their opinions are education and well-informed. It is the lazy individual who formulates their opinions on innuendo and rumor.
It is everyone's responsibility to ask themselves these questions and formulate their own answers to these extremely important issues. Perhaps one of the most controversial topics for debate is over the ethical right of the death penalty. Some feel the penalty to too severe and inhumane. Others feel the penalty is just and not used often enough. Skepticism Is Defined as a School of. Skepticism is defined as a school of philosophical thought where a person doubts the beliefs of another person or group.
Not only do they doubt organized religion, they also doubt the validity of socially constructed morals and laws. Sometimes they doubt the world as they witness it because they are unsure of the truth of reality as they perceive it through the senses Butchvarov Like many philosophies, skepticism has origins in Ancient Greece. Pyrrho of Elis is credited with founding the philosophy, a branch of which was later named Pyrrhonism in his honor.
The philosophy was expanded into countries throughout the known world, up to and including the early modern world. During the Enlightenment, skepticism branched…… [Read More]. Educational Philosophy The four Educational Philosophies Essentialism Essentialism argues that a common core of knowledge needs to be passed to learners in a disciplined and systematic manner. The concentration in this traditional viewpoint is on moral and intellectual standards that academic institutions should educate.
The curriculum focuses on knowledge, skills, and academic rigor. Although this academic viewpoint is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialism accepts the idea that this core curriculum may change. Education should be realistic, preparing learners to become useful people in the society. It should concentrate on facts and "the fundamentals," training learners to speak, write, read and think clearly and rationally.
Schools must not try to set or influence guidelines. Students should be trained self-discipline, respect for authority, and hard work. Instructors are to help learners keep their non-productive intuition in checks, such as mindlessness or aggression. This strategy was in response to progressivism techniques…… [Read More]. Country and the Stanger Kawabata's.
The earth lay white under the night sky. The setting thus translates the sense of innocence but also that of emptiness and loneliness. Camus' Stranger also hints at solitude and alienation even from the title. Mersault is already a famous literary character, the modern alien in society.
The main difference between him and Shimamura is the fact that the latter has a Romantic bent towards fantasy and a narcissism that keeps him locked in his own world. The common trait that they share is their permanent sense of anxiety.
Mersault, unlike Shimamura, is literally afraid of the people that surround him. Incapable of empathy, Mersault feels like a complete stranger not only because he cannot connect with the others but because he…… [Read More].
Alienation in the Guest and a Soldiers Home. Marx asserts that the worker laboring for a capitalist corporation or a business is alienated because he does not own that product, someone else does, and his sweat and tears go into the production of items that another entity benefits from Purdue.
Since Krebs felt he had to lie to get anyone to listen to him he was technically alienated from the truth, and that removed him from the mainstream in society.
It was his own doing of course. Krebs likes to look…… [Read More]. Terror, Imperialism, And Totalitarianism Imperialism is defined in the abstract, quite often, as the ideology of 'carrying the white man's burden,' in other words, of carrying the white cultural burden of civilization to the native or darker peoples of the world. But in practice, imperialism often has a less lofty goal and terror rather than teaching is the method used to enforce imperialism's 'laws' and values of social and political control.
In the past, such as in French-controlled Algiers, depicted in the film directed by Pontecorvo "The Battle of Algiers," imperialism is often enforced through a series of dominating policies or military actions by a stronger European nation. One country seeks to exert its control over another country or territory, often to gain an economic or political advantage in a particular region.
In the film, the Algerian people fight long and hard to wrest control over their own territory…… [Read More]. Beginning with Sigmund Freud's fascination with the power of the unconscious which he explicitly details through his work Dora , the influence that the unconscious has on an individual is explicated and determined to practically guide everything that one does, but without really giving the illusion that one is in control.
The unconscious controls the self, but does it define who one is? When there is no sense of control or free will, things fall apart. One wants to know that one can influence the way that one's life turns out, but in reality, a very small number of things are actually under one's control. By attributing all sense of control and destiny to the unconscious, one either loses the definition of who one is as a person, or gives up any sort of power in…… [Read More].
Good Man Is Hard to Find for. Upon reading this story, I immediately questioned the grandmother's role in the story, and especially whether or not the story portrayed her in a positive or negative light, because although at points in the story she appears positive in contrast to the other characters, she is ultimately shown to be reactive, shortsighted, and altogether incapable of protecting either her family or herself.
Perhaps we cannot prevent this world from being a world in which children are tortured. But we can reduce the number of tortured children. Camus worked tirelessly to end what he called Absurd Death, nominally any death that meaningless was committed in the name of politics. Throughout The Unbeliever and the Christians, Camus reformulates his interpretation of meaningful life and death, limned by the conversation of the history and relevance of Christianity.
When he received the Nobel Prize in , he publicly thanked the committee and world for his recognition as a novelist, but stressed the importance of life and its recognition as a political cause. Throughout his writings, both fictional and non, and personal life, Camus was at home in the major trials of history, but at peace in the human celebration of life. Despite the terrors committed throughout history, he resigned from the temptation to respond to evil with evil, and urged Christians to take up their cross and respond to death with the life he secularly preached and they religiously acclaimed.
Works Cited Camus, Albert. The Plague and an Ethic of Nonviolence, , Retrieved from: Portrait of a Moralist. University of Minnesota Press, SparkNote on The Plague.
Works Cited Bree, Germaine. Columbia University Press, Rutgers University Press, Sandra Mueller and Jean-Marc Vary. The Twentieth Century, the Present. Camus in the Book the View Full Essay. Work Cited Camus, Albert.
The Myth of Sisyphus. Works Cited Baldwin, James. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. The concept of the absurd resolves a classic existential dilemma: Camus suggests that it is acceptable if life has no meaning, and that people can still live happy and fulfilling lives without an ultimate sense of meaning.
The search for meaning can in itself be viewed as an absurdity in the human condition. In "The Myth of Sisyphus," Camus claims that the only way to resolve existential angst is accepting the absurdity of life and moving through it. The central allegory of the Myth of Sisyphus is a Greek story of Sisyphus, who is punished to eternal damnation on earth by having to roll a rock up a hill. The rock rolls down again, and so Sisyphus is in a state of perpetual motion.
Nothing is happening, but if Sisyphus can accept the absurdity in the situation, he can achieve liberation. This mentality can be applied to any frustrating situation in life. Any time a person feels trapped, the simple awareness and acceptance of that fact can lead to mental liberation.
Camus's philosophy can be applied to any life situation in which a person can find the humor in the absurdity of an event or a person. Sigmund Freud wrote "Civilization and its Discontents" in Freud discusses social psychology, explaining how an individual struggles to maintain a personal identity as well as a collective identity. The social norms that pressure the individual to conform to society are often in conflict with one's inner truth or desire. In fact, a person's desires are frequently in conflict with the social norms.
Freud expanded upon this general concept in his theory of the personality as being divided into id, ego, and superego. The superego represents the social norms and cultural values that constrain the individual; whereas the ego is the person's individualism which struggles to assert itself.
The id is the desire that all people have for food, sex, and pleasure. This is what Freud refers to as the pleasure principle. Freud's writings have had a huge impact on the field of psychology but also on sociology and anthropology. More than that, Freud's writings have had an impact on the way people perceive the world. Most people have heard of the Freudian concepts that are outlined in "Civilization and its Discontents.
Is it Moral or Immoral to Have an Abortion? The New York Times Company. Vintage Books, Raskin, Richard. Kierkegaard vs Camus in the View Full Essay. The Myth of Sisyphus: Translated by Justin O'Brien.
The Basic Writings of Existentialism. The Acquisition of Argument Structure. An Introduction to Greek Philosophy. Works Cited Camus, Albert the Fall.
Camus was still without stable employment or steady income when, after marrying his second wife, Francine Faure, in December of , he departed Lyons, where he had been working as a journalist, and returned to Algeria. To help make ends meet, he taught part-time French history and geography at a private school in Oran.
All the while he was putting finishing touches to his first novel The Stranger , which was finally published in to favorable critical response, including a lengthy and penetrating review by Jean-Paul Sartre. The novel propelled him into immediate literary renown. Camus returned to France in and a year later began working for the clandestine newspaper Combat , the journalistic arm and voice of the French Resistance movement.
During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and the absurd, and joined Gallimard Publishing as an editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Combat, oversaw the production and publication of two plays, The Misunderstanding and Caligula , and assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others.
In the late 40s his growing reputation as a writer and thinker was enlarged by the publication of The Plague , an allegorical novel and fictional parable of the Nazi Occupation and the duty of revolt, and by the lecture tours to the United States and South America.
In he published The Rebel , a reflection on the nature of freedom and rebellion and a philosophical critique of revolutionary violence. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his being branded a reactionary in the view of many European Communists.
Yet his position also established him as an outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an impassioned critic of tyranny and terrorism, whether practiced by the Left or by the Right.
In , Camus published the short, confessional novel The Fall , which unfortunately would be the last of his completed major works and which in the opinion of some critics is the most elegant, and most under-rated of all his books. During this period he was still afflicted by tuberculosis and was perhaps even more sorely beset by the deteriorating political situation in his native Algeria—which had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and guerilla attacks into open violence and insurrection.
Camus still hoped to champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and the French pied noir minority to live together peaceably in a new de-colonized and largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the odds of such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. In the fall of , following publication of Exile and the Kingdom, a collection of short fiction, Camus was shocked by news that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.
He absorbed the announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and amazement. On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor. On the other, not only did he feel that his friend and esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to artists at the end of a long career. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead:.
Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. A man almost young, rich only in his doubts, and with his work still in progress…how could such a man not feel a kind of panic at hearing a decree that transports him all of a sudden…to the center of a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the very greatest, are condemned to silence, and even at a time when the country of his birth is going through unending misery?
Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of his writing career was in fact behind him. He also formulated new concepts for film and television, assumed a leadership role in a new experimental national theater, and continued to campaign for peace and a political solution in Algeria.
Unfortunately, none of these latter projects would be brought to fulfillment. On January 4, , Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in a vehicle driven by his friend and publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries. The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in Provencal where he and his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade.
In this respect, it is also worth noting that at no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of philosopher.
Instead, he nearly always referred to himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain —a writer. This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in intellectual history and in twentieth-century philosophy, for by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation.
Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the sort. On the other hand, we can draw at least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche—that is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and literary flair gained them a special place in the pantheon of world literature as well.
Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche especially in the style and structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into fiction and journalism and prevented him from pursuing an academic career.
Perhaps Camus himself best defined his own particular status as a philosophical writer when he wrote with authors like Melville, Stendhal, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka especially in mind: By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in the sense that he has a conceived his own distinctive and original world-view and b sought to convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and events, and via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and direct discourse.
He is also both a novelist of ideas and a psychological novelist, and in this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Dostoyevsky and Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and a dramatic style of presentation.
Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and The Possessed for the stage. However, his body of work also includes a collection of short fiction, Exile and the Kingdom ; an autobiographical novel, The First Man ; a number of dramatic works, most notably Caligula, The Misunderstanding , The State of Siege , and The Just Assassins ; several translations and adaptations, including new versions of works by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dostoyevsky, and Faulkner; and a lengthy assortment of essays, prose pieces, critical reviews, transcribed speeches and interviews, articles, and works of journalism.
Camus made no effort to conceal the fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the rise of Nazism and the nightmare of the Occupation. However, the plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the mettle of human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of responsibility, their compassion, and their will.
Set in a seedy bar in the red-light district of Amsterdam, the work is a small masterpiece of compression and style: Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for film, stage, and television at the time of his death. In addition to his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations including theatre pieces based on works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon.
He took particular pride in his work as a dramatist and man of the theatre. However, his plays never achieved the same popularity, critical success, or level of incandescence as his more famous novels and major essays.
The Misunderstanding Le Malentendu , —In this grim exploration of the Absurd, a son returns home while concealing his true identity from his mother and sister. The two women operate a boarding house where, in order to make ends meet, they quietly murder and rob their patrons. Through a tangle of misunderstanding and mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor.
Camus has explained the drama as an attempt to capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and anonymity that he experienced while living in France during the German occupation. The play is set in the Spanish seaport city of Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and street musicians. By the end of the first act, the normally laid-back and carefree citizens fall under the dominion of a gaudily beribboned and uniformed dictator named Plague based on Generalissimo Franco and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary who turns out to be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the medieval figure Death.
One of the prominent concerns of the play is the Orwellian theme of the degradation of language via totalitarian politics and bureaucracy symbolized onstage by calls for silence, scenes in pantomime, and a gagged chorus. The Just Assassins Les Justes , —First performed in Paris to largely favorable reviews, this play is based on real-life characters and an actual historical event: The play effectively dramatizes the issues that Camus would later explore in detail in The Rebel , especially the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified and if so, with what limitations and in what specific circumstances.
After the successful completion of his bombing mission and subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of revolution and social justice. Upon seeing the two children in the carriage, he refuses to toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in their eyes.
Similarly, at the end of the play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the revolution, but almost as a form of karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for true justice to be achieved. Nuptials Noces , —This collection of four rhapsodic narratives supplements and amplifies the youthful philosophy expressed in Betwixt and Between. Affirming a defiantly atheistic creed, Camus concludes with one of the core ideas of his philosophy: It is here that Camus formally introduces and fully articulates his most famous idea, the concept of the Absurd, and his equally famous image of life as a Sisyphean struggle.
In the end, Camus rejects suicide: Only this time his primary concern is not suicide but murder. He takes up the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can be morally justified, which is basically the same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins. After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in rare and very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified.
To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer un ecrivain. However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosopher—a term he seems to have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of ideas. This is not to suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy.
It is simply to point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre , for example, he showed very little interest in metaphysics and ontology, which seems to be one of the reasons he consistently denied that he was an existentialist. In short, he was not much given to speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing.
His thought is instead nearly always related to current events e. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural. Even as a youth, he was more of a sun-worshipper and nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith.
On the other hand, there is no denying that Christian literature and philosophy served as an important influence on his early thought and intellectual development. As a young high school student, Camus studied the Bible, read and savored the Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Augustine would later serve as the subject of his baccalaureate dissertation and become—as a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and conscientious observer-critic of his own life—an important lifelong influence.
In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the single greatest Christian influence on his thought. He also studied Schopenhauer and Nietzsche—undoubtedly the two writers who did the most to set him on his own path of defiant pessimism and atheism.
Other notable influences include not only the major modern philosophers from the academic curriculum—from Descartes and Spinoza to Bergson—but also, and just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka.
Here he unfolds what is essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. In the Romantic poetic tradition of writers like Rilke and Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of all hereafters and an emphatic embrace of the here and now. There is no salvation, he argues, no transcendence; there is only the enjoyment of consciousness and natural being.
One life, this life, is enough. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven. In the first place, the Camus of Nuptials is still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre. He favors a life of impulse and daring as it was honored and practiced in both Romantic literature and in the streets of Belcourt.
Recently married and divorced, raised in poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world.
Consequently, the Camus of the period is a decidedly different writer from the Camus who will ascend the dais at Stockholm nearly twenty years later. The young Camus is more of a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of a dandy and aesthete, than the more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to be lived vividly and intensely—indeed rebelliously to use the term that will take on increasing importance in his thought.
He is also a writer attracted to causes, though he is not yet the author who will become world-famous for his moral seriousness and passionate commitment to justice and freedom. All of which is understandable.
- Albert Camus' The Myth of Sisyphus Albert Camus' essay, 'The Myth Of Sisyphus' is an insightful analysis of the classic work, 'The Myth Of Sisyphus'.
The Myth of Sisyphus (French: Le Mythe de Sisyphe) is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. The English translation by Justin O'Brien was first published in The English translation by Justin O'Brien was first published in Author: Albert Camus.
Camus’ “The Stranger” was published in the dark days of the World War II, during the Existentialist movement, along with the essay collection "The Myth of Sisyphus". Meursault is the protagonist of Camus' "The Stranger", (Camus) who conveys Camus' ideas of independence, freedom and life. Complement the altogether beautiful Lyrical and Critical Essays with Camus on happiness, unhappiness, and our self-imposed prisons, his illustrated wisdom on love, and the beautiful letter of gratitude he wrote to his childhood teacher after receiving the Nobel Prize.
Essay on Literary Devices Used in Albert Camus' The Plague A book of horrors, fear and death. “The Plague” is a book by Albert Camus which weaves these emotions and events into one suspenseful tale. Oct 21, · Words: Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Plague: Albert Camus Camu's Philosophy Albert Camus' philosophy is often defined as the "philosophy of the absurd" the idea that life has no rational or real meaning (Ward, ). This philosophy is defined through the actions and life of his six characters in his novel The Plague.