An alternative format is shown in the example below. Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added.
This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work.
When a publication has several authors , it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:. Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:.
You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.
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When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work.
The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas.
When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al. Humanities graduates in the labour market. The Falmer Press, pp. Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp.
Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.
The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text of your essay, then both the author's name and year are usually placed at the end of the sentence in brackets.
Where the author's name is cited in your essay and is part of the sentence, put the author's name, followed by the year of publication, in brackets. Cormack states that 'when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works' In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work.
This view has been supported in the work of Cormack Where the author's name is not cited directly in the essay, both the author's name and year are usually placed at the end of the sentence, in brackets. Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience Cormack Where more than one author's work is cited in your essay Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, these can be listed, Jones and Smith have both shown Where more than one authors' works are not cited directly in your essay they can be listed at the end of the sentence, putting the author's name, followed by the date of publication, separated by semi-colons and within brackets.
Jones ; Smith Where there are two authors for a particular work When there are two authors for a work, these should all be noted in your text. White and Brown in their recent research paper found Or indirectly Slater and Jones Acquiring good references is usually a time consuming and perhaps costly undertaking.
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As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Referencing the Essay Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions and work of others in your writing by citing your sources. A feature of academic writing is that it contains references to the .
Likewise, within academic essays, the use of APA style referencing means that the evidence presented within essays reflects scientific research reporting. To close, this essay can be used as an example for students to learn how sources should be cited and referenced in the APA style. References: Adair, J. G., & Vohra, N. (). Aug 29, · How to Cite an Essay. Four Methods: Citing an Essay in MLA Citing an Essay in APA Citing an Essay in Chicago Style’s Note-Bibliography System Citing an Essay in Chicago Style’s Author-Date System Community Q&A. Whether you're a high school student or a professional writer, you may need to cite your sources using a Views: K.
The following winning essay was submitted in by a UK higher education student for an essay writing competition sponsored by the LearnHigher Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) network. The set title was ‘What is the point of referencing?’, and there was a maximum word limit. Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited, a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number