The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB. F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals.
This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…… [Read More]. Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. Culture Care Universality and Diversity Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice.
According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice.
To discover patterns, and…… [Read More]. These two 2 paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms.
Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought Fossey, , p.
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable.
In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…… [Read More]. White Psychoanalytic Creative Case Study. Snow hite has a low sense of self-efficacy. She dreams of a prince making her life better, not of making her life better through her own initiative She does not leave her cruel stepmother's home, rather she waits until she is literally forced out in a life or death situation, even though she was being abused and used as a scullery maid.
This behavior may also tie into her strong superego as a character -- she does not openly disobey her stepmother, ever, and works hard to earn her keep for the dwarves. However, her superego's strength is inconsistent -- she breaks into a home rather than takes refuge somewhere else, and allows herself to eat an apple from a stranger. Snow hite is the subject of her stepmother's projections -- all of the woman's fears about aging and her loss of beauty are projected onto the girl, and the…… [Read More].
Psychological Trait Theory in Criminology: The field of criminology can basically be described as the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior since professionals in this field try to develop theories that explain the reason for the occurrence of crimes and test the theories through observation of criminal behavior.
The criminological theories in turn help in shaping the response of the society to crime in relation to preventing criminal behavior and reacting to such behaviors after they occur. Generally, the field of criminology has evolved in three different phases since the inception of this discipline in the 18th Century. While crime and criminals have existed for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these incidents began in the late s. Prior to this period, crime and criminal behavior were mainly equated to sin i.
The infringement of a sacred obligation. Evolution of the Discipline of Criminology: Grief Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement Grade Course Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients.
Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch.
Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…… [Read More]. Counseling Theory Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice.
Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways.
The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks. Existential Therapy Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," Corey, , p.
Corey claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]. Freud's Psycho-Analysis and Psychoanalytic Object. For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management. Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached.
The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process. Stages of Development According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood.
If a person does not break away from these bonds,…… [Read More]. Personal Theory as a Therapist. From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.
In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing…… [Read More].
Social construction theories on'serial killers. Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders.
Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime.
The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction Hickey, Social Structure Theory This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success.
Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. William Glasser developed his theory of eality Therapy in the early s.
He is best known for his book eality Therapy: He has also developed supplements to reality therapy in the form of choice theory and control theory, which are all now aligned under the heading "new reality therapy" Corey, , p. Both of these models place a strong focus on the interactions of people with others, and the development of relationships. At its…… [Read More]. Foundations and Components of Psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalytic Model Discusses the foundations and components of psychoanalysis People today are familiar with psychoanalysis after its wide rejection as well as adulation for years.
Paradoxically, the success realized in the 5th decade, particularly in Europe, divorced it from its core principles. It spread widely but not because of the attention drawn for its therapy methods. It can be said that therapy was duly overshadowed due to its application in other fields. Psychoanalysis is used in sociology, literature, anthropology, mythology, religion and ethnology.
Psychoanalysis is applied jointly in three areas: Psychoanalytical science is highlighted by Freud in his study Totem and Taboo where he dives into anthropological and…… [Read More]. Application of Personality Theories to Counseling and Therapy. Personality Therapy Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors.
Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory.
The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Psychology Psychoanalysis Is a Theory. It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways.
Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather.
In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment Donaldson Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful the most successful, in fact in conditioning.
For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it. The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…… [Read More]. Theories It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud.
Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term. Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive.
Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. Freud also partnered…… [Read More]. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans.
Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior. For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices such as buying a new…… [Read More].
Personality Theories Determinants of Behavior. Changing for the Better Hundreds of thousands of years of instinctive programming influence the behavior of modern humans in ways they do not fully understand, and in many cases, people may not even be aware of these influences on their behavior.
This is not to say, of course, that modern humans are incapable of thoughtful and purposeful action, but it is to say that such unconscious influences on behavior can cause problems if they are not recognized and dealt with in a meaningful fashion.
To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning personality and behavior, followed by a discussion concerning how behavior can be influenced by personality in ways that can cause individual problems such as risky behaviors that lead to substance abuse or unprotected premarital sex.
Finally, an examination concerning how the interactionism view…… [Read More]. The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology. Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment.
Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality. Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment.
He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…… [Read More]. Applying Lowenfeld S Art Theory. Lowenfeld's Stages Of Artistic Development The artistic development theory that most pertains to the work I did with my student for this assignment is Lowenfeld's stages of artistic development. One of the things that was most interesting about applying this theory to the student I worked with is that she appeared to be between stages. Subsequently, my observations of her work, my interactions with her, and her expectations for her artistic prowess were different from any of the stages expressly identified by this theory.
Nonetheless, by combining different aspects of two of those stages, I was able to influence this student's artistic expectations and understand exactly where she was in her process of artistic development. Prior to explicating the relevance of Lowenfeld's stages of artistic development, it is necessary to provide some background information about the student with whom I worked.
She is 11 years old, and is of both…… [Read More]. Dream Can Be Described as. The is also based on drive-defence model which was advanced by Freud. The second topology one includes the less common dreams whose meaning are different and should therefore be treated and handled in the light of latest theoretical frameworks as advanced by Kohut Self-psychology. He referred to these dreams as "Self-state dreams" which are experienced when the patient's psychological structure stability is in jeopardy.
Such crisis or threat usually occur in different pathological states, the states can however vary from being hyper-stimulation maniacal , to tension reduction in approach of a depressed state. This might lead to a serious problem related to the of the psychic structure's disintegration. Kohut in stated that the act of exhibiting the elements of a dream makes up the attempt by the unconscious to tackle the psychological dangers that are related to the actual processes portrayed in the visual images in the dream Through…… [Read More].
Therapies and Influences in the. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. This is because Freud himself was: With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future.
As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…… [Read More]. Psychology Models Since Sigmund Freud. Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits. Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century.
For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual cognition , the environment physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people , and the person's past behavior.
This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy CBT incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" Nevid, , p.
Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]. Asher Lev Just as One. Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected. However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it.
For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own.
This conflict is often portrayed…… [Read More]. Depressive Disorder According to the DSM -- IV -- T , Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities Using Psychology at Work.
Freud was one of the early pioneers of psychoanalytic theory, which is still prevalent today and is associated with a psychodynamic perspective and its presence in contemporary organizations. There is a distinctive way in which psychoanalytic theory -- and many of the concepts advanced by Freud -- can influence functional cultural identity. By extension, there are a number of different ways cultural identity can pertain to a leader's influence on the perception of cultural identity and on organizational and individual performance.
Perhaps the core notion of psychoanalytic theory is that a person's past plays a substantial role in his or her present. The clinician utilizing this theory attempts to identify key elements in a person's past that are contributing to myriad manifestations in his or her present life, and change them…… [Read More]. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant.
The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: The orphaned Harry was forced to live with a distant family relative. The relatives are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry, who is part wizard. Harry is aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. However, Harry is about to face a serious crisis that will call into question his psychological resilience. The Ministry of Magic has undertaken a massive and coordinated attempt to undermine Harry's credibility.
The Ministry's goal is sabotage of Harry's reputation, and his entire career as a wizard. Underlying the motivation of the Ministry…… [Read More]. Erikson Those Who Are Unclear. Erikson also states that the development of personality continued through the entire life cycle, rather than just during childhood as Freud has postulated. Finally, Erikson believed that each stage of development had both positive and negative elements. Many psychotherapists use psychodynamic psychotherapy which helps the patients to understand their feelings.
Psychodynamic psychology treats depression, a widespread illness in our modern society which includes problems with concentration and decision making, apathetic behavior, serious changes in feelings and physical well-being. The id is related to biological needs such as hunger, thirst, sex and so on. It provides energy for all systems of human body.
Another part is superego. Sigmund Freud was sure that physical energy concerning human personality can be transformed from one state to another but it cannot be created or destroyed. When the child needs to be changed, the id cries. When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention, the id speaks up until his or her needs are met. They have no care for time, whether their parents are sleeping, relaxing, eating dinner, or bathing.
When the id wants something, nothing else is important. From the outset i. The ego is based on the reality principle. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In other words, the ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our parents and society—our sense of right and wrong.
Many equate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.
In a healthy person, according to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation. If the superego becomes to strong, the person would be driven by rigid morals, would be judgmental and unbending in his or her interactions with the world.
Freud claimed that in nearly all cases the boy represses the desire for his mother and the jealousy toward his father. As a result of this unconscious experience, a boy with an Oedipus complex feels guilt and experiences strong emotional conflicts. Freud thought that the girl go through a similar experience , in which they are attracted to their father and become antagonistic toward their mother. He called this the Electra complex. According to Freud, if a woman remain under the influence of the Electra complex, shi is likely to choose a husband with characteristics similar to those of her father.
Psychological Analysis of Young Goodman Brown. There are many approaches that you can take when analyzing literature. In Young Goodman Brown there are many layers to read through.
This essay will describe Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, method and the techniques he used, describing, Methods of Investigation, Personality Development, Defence Mechanisms and The Psychosexual Stages of Development.
Jan 20, · Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory and Method Essay Words | 5 Pages Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory and Method Sigmund Freud was the creator of Psychoanalysis which means analysis of the mind, Freud developed specific methods of analysing, all of them concentrating on the unconscious mind.
The conscious vs the unconscious. b- The id, ego, and superego. c- Oedipus complex. 2- Psychological Analysis of Young Goodman Brown. III- Conclusion. Prepared by: Manal Abdul Lateef. What is psychoanalysis?? Psychoanalysis is a name applied to a specific method of investigating unconscious mental processes and to a form of psychotherapy. "Psychoanalytic Theory" Essays and Research Papers Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmond Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Development Sigmond Freud’s .
Apr 29, · Psychoanalytic theory revolves around the concept of the 'unconscious.' However, one of the major criticisms of this theory is that it is difficult to 'prove' that the unconscious exists. psychoanalysis of frankenstein - Essay 2 Psychoanalysis is the method of psychological therapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts (“Psychoanalysis”).