When it comes to statistic analysis, there are two classifications: In a nutshell, descriptive statistics intend to describe a big hunk of data with summary charts and tables, but do not attempt to draw conclusions about the population from which the sample was taken. You are simply summarizing the data you have with pretty charts and graphs—kind of like telling someone the key points of a book executive summary as opposed to just handing them a thick book raw data.
Conversely, with inferential statistics, you are testing a hypothesis and drawing conclusions about a population, based on your sample. To understand the simple difference between descriptive and inferential statistics, all you need to remember is that descriptive statistics summarize your current dataset and inferential statistics aim to draw conclusions about an additional population outside of your dataset.
This would sure be easier for someone to interpret than a big spreadsheet. There are hundreds of ways to visualize data, including data tables, pie charts, line charts, etc. Note that the analysis is limited to your data and that you are not extrapolating any conclusions about a full population.
Descriptive statistic reports generally include summary data tables kind of like the age table above , graphics like the charts above , and text to explain what the charts and tables are showing. There are thousands of expensive research reports that do nothing more than descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics usually involve measures of central tendency mean, median, mode and measures of dispersion variance, standard deviation, etc.
Well, there are about 7 billion people in the world, and it would be impossible to ask every single person about their ice cream preferences. Instead, you would try to sample a representative population of people and then extrapolate your sample results to the entire population. This is the idea behind inferential statistics. Descriptive research can be applied to evaluate the outcomes of an event. This technique is useful for studying the effectiveness of social programs.
It can be employed mid-project as a form of needs assessment that identifies what is working in the program and what can be further developed. The greatest advantage of using evaluation is employing this technique at the end of the project to ensure that the intended goals were realized. For example, evaluation could be used to establish whether a particular immunization program was able to prevent the disease or if it was able to attract the number of participants desired.
Janine Murphy has worked since as a researcher, and editor for academic theses. She completed her Masters of Arts in cultural history in at Memorial University of Newfoundland and is one year away from completing her Ph. The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language.
A descriptive researcher translates data into a narrative. Case Studies Case studies are one of the most flexible means for descriptive research. Observation Observations provide an opportunity for researchers to directly study behavior in a natural context. Surveys A survey can comprise written questionnaires or interviews.
Evaluation Descriptive research can be applied to evaluate the outcomes of an event. About the Author Janine Murphy has worked since as a researcher, and editor for academic theses.
Accessed 14 September Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. Types of Descriptive Research Methods.
What Is a Retrospective Analysis? Advantages and Disadvantages of Journal Research Methods.
Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods.
Descriptive research can be explained as a statement of affairs as they are at present with the researcher having no control over variable. Moreover, “descriptive studies may be characterised as simply the attempt to determine, describe or identify what is, while analytical research attempts to establish why it is that way or how it came to be” .
Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study. More simply put, descriptive research is all . Descriptive research requires gathering data that will describe an event and presenting the information in an organized, and often visual, manner. Description is used to explain the answer to "what is" and to depict patterns that emerge during a study through a variety of research techniques.
Descriptive science is a category of science that involves descriptive research; that is, observing, recording, describing, and classifying phenomena. Descriptive research is sometimes contrasted with hypothesis-driven research, which is focused on testing a particular hypothesis by means of experimentation. Descriptive research is commonly used in social sciences to study characteristics or phenomenons. Also known as statistical research, researchers look into the frequency, average or other qualitative methods to understand a subject being studied. It involves case studies, observation, survey and.