Ecosystem diversity informs the number of riches, trophic levels and ecological systems like energy flow, food webs and recycling of nutrients. Diverse communities are more stable and productive.
They can tolerate environmental stresses like prolonged dry conditions. Number of habitats and ecosystems observed in an area is also a criterion for measuring biodiversity.
Some important ecosystems are savarmas, rain forests, deserts, lakes, wetlands and oceans. There is a much variety of fauna and flora in the oceans. India has a coastline of about 6, km. The main reason for this remarkable diversity of life forms in a single country is the great diversity of ecosystems, which it has supported down the ages.
Equally important are the micro-organisms like fungi and bacteria which are very important component of biosphere in as much as they are responsible for degradation of the dead biomass and release of nutrients, which are assimilable by plants and animals and enrich soil, as also form humus.
Some noteworthy features of these regions are: About 33 per cent flowering plants, 53 per cent freshwater fish, 60 per cent amphibians, 36 per cent reptiles and 10 per cent mammals found in India are endemic. Such areas include wetlands, lakes, oceans, tree canopy and soil of tropical rain forests.
There is an urgent need to arrest species extinction. Equally important is the need to prevent the loss of thousands of years of human selection in crop species and domesticated animals for posterity. Biodiversity or its physical manifestation-the biological resources are the basis of life on earth. Ecosystem provides a variety of goods and other services- immediate as well as long term material which are vital to our well being.
Countries having greater biodiversity have better potential to compete with rest of the world in global market for search of genes and species with potential uses. The value of biodiversity in terms of its commercial utility, ecological services, social and aesthetic value is enormous. All the living organisms are so closely interlinked through food chain, food webs, material cycling, energy flow, etc. Similarly, killing of carnivores will increase the population of herbivores which will damage the vegetation and disturb the ecological balance.
Species of plants and animals keep a check on their numbers through food chains, so the wildlife helps to preserve the environment as a self-sustaining system. Thus, ecosystems often support and provide services like soil fertility, plant pollinators, predators, decomposers, purification of air and water, management of flood and drought and other environmental disasters. Biodiversity is required for maintaining and sustainable use of goods and services from ecosystems. These services are maintenance of gaseous composition in atmosphere, pollination, formation of soil, nutrient cycling, climate control by forests and oceanic systems.
Such services will otherwise cost 16 to 54 trillion 10 12 US dollars per year. Ecosystems with more biodiversity can withstand the environmental challenges in a better way because genetically variability leads to different tolerance range for a specific environmental stress.
Due to this single stress cannot eliminate them easily; Thus species with higher genetic biodiversity have better adaptation ability towards environmental disturbances. Wildlife acts as a source of gene bank for breeding programmes in agriculture, animal husbandry, fisheries, etc. Other wild animals are used as research materials on which drugs are tested before applying to mankind.
Plant breeders have produced a number of high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties from their wild relatives by genetic modifications. So there is an urgent need to protect wildlife for breeding experiments.
The wildlife acts as a source for new varieties. The protection of wild life becomes of paramount importance for their survival and propagation of race, so man is constantly in search of ways and means of preserving natural areas in their natural conditions to promote the development of wildlife e.
Similarly, wild rice Oryza nivara provided resistance against grassy stunt virus in s when virus- resistant gene was incorporated in IR rice variety; Wild Thatch Grass Saccharum sponataneum provided resistant gene to sugarcane against red rot disease; similarly in potato, resistant gene against late blight disease has been incorporated from a wild variety — Solarium demissum.
Thus the production of high-yielding, disease-resistant crops, livestocks and fish cannot withstand the changes of the surrounding without their wild relatives. Plants are also useful for making many synthetic products called botanochemicals.
Twenty five per cent of drugs in pharmacy are got from only about species of plants. About seventy five per cent of anticancer drugs are derived from plants found in tropical rainforests. The medicinal benefits are not only limited to plant compounds.
A host of microbial, anti-viral, cardio active and neuro-physiologic substances have been derived from poisonous marine fauna. The venoms of various arthropods have medicinal potential. It is obtained from sources like livestock, forestry and fish.
Originally plants were consumed directly from wild habitats. Gradually, most of them were grown as agriculture. More than 80, species of plants are used as food. About 4, native plant and animal species are used by villagers in Indonesia for food and medicine.
Plants provide food not only for themselves but also for other organisms including man. Just three crops i. Global fish production exceeds that of cattle, sheep, and poultry. It is the largest source of either world or domestic animal protein in the world.
In fact, tourist industry of Kenya is based on its wildlife. Due to their beauty, many birds, variously colourful butterflies, mammals, green forests etc. Aesthetic pleasure derived from biodiversity includes bird watching, pet keeping, gardening, wild life sanctuaries etc.
Many plants are considered sacred and even worshipped in India e. Ficus religiosa peepal , Ocitnum sanctum Tulsi and Prosopis cineraria Khejiri. Many animals like birds and snakes are also worshipped. The value put to aesthetic function of nature is reflected in creation of millions of small home gardens, several community gardens, botanical gardens, zoos, aquariums established in different states. Growing up in degraded environments, could result in the development of negative attitudes in human populations.
A wild species may have certain benefits which are still not known to us and may become known in future. So the conservation of even non-beneficial species is equally significant e. Wildlife is also important in games so are hunted upon while some of them are even worshipped. A visit to the sanctuaries and national parks is a thrilling experience. Some animals are used for recreation of people in circus shows. The present wild life is the result of organic evolution which started about 3.
So it is our ethical duty to conserve the wildlife for the utilization of coming generations. There are many animal gods as well like Matsya, Narsimha and Hanuman. It is a natural but slow process but due to unplanned activities of man, the rate of decline of wild life has been particularly rapid in the last one hundred years. India alone has a total of threatened species of which include 86 mammals, 70 birds, 25 reptiles, 3 amphibians, 8 fishes, 23 invertebrates and plants.
The biological diversity of ecosystems like Wayanad, Kolli Hills, Jeypore Tract, Bhitarkanika, Lakshadweep Islands, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram is under threat because of conflict between food security of population living therein and biodiversity conservation. Main causes of its facing extinction are increasing destruction of its habitat, by deforestation coupled with jhum and shifting cultivation. Dams block spawning and migration of certain fishes. Due to this species present in deeper areas start disappearing.
The declaration of common Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius as endangered species in Redlist is primarily due to habitat loss and its over exploitation for meat and ivory. Animals like elephants, lions, bears and large cats require bigger areas to survive and more.
Few birds can reproduce only in deep forests. Indiscriminate hunting for various uses of animals like food, hide, musk, tusk, horn, fur, plumage, recreation, etc. Other causes of indiscriminate hunting of wild animals are: Excessive hunting is known to cause.
Last live cheetah died in Delhi Zoo in According to a report of WPSI Wildlife Protection Society of India , more than 60 tigers have been poached in different parts of the country during the year A London based international conservation organisation has stated that poaching of tigers for Chinese medicines, is responsible for the death of at least one tiger in India every day.
According to another report, rhino poaching in and around Kaziranga National Park has increased and 25 rhinos have been poached in In Orissa, many wildlife species including Asian elephant face imminent danger of extermination because of poaching and lack of concern by the Government to check trafficking of wild animals.
Wildlife Society of Orissa has reported that 57 elephants have been shot dead by poachers for ivory between Strict action by Rajasthan Government coupled with quick judicial pronouncements in October, in the cases related to two black bucks by cine star Salman Khan and his accomplices has clearly sent a message that howsoever highly placed one might be, no one can escape the due process of law when it comes to the crime of killing the wild animals.
Introduction of exotic alien species are known to threaten the survival of many native species e. The fungus was accidentally introduced into the United States in It is a nuisance weed in many eutrophic nutrient rich lakes and rivers in tropical countries like India where it does not allow other plants to grow and multiply properly. These exotic species are known to adversely affect the native species through factors like: Over-exploitation of natural resources e.
Disturbance in migratory routes of animals like fishes due to construction of dams, etc. International trade in increasingly scarce animal products like medicines, perfumes, cosmetics, decoration, museum specimens, etc. A number of wild animals get confused and are run-over by the vehicles on the highways so decreasing their number.
Majority of Indian people are not aware of the importance of wildlife and ill effects of its destruction. So the people must be educated to save the wildlife. Large scale use of synthetic compounds release of radioactive chemicals, oil spills are polluting the rivers and reducing the species number. It is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems on earth.
This can refer to genetic variation, species variation, or ecosystem variation, within an area, biome, or planet. Biodiversity tends to be highest around the equator, which is probably resulted the warm climate and high primary productivity.
Biodiversity has not been evenly distributed on Earth. It is the richest in the tropics. Marine biodiversity is getting to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. Biodiversity has been increasing through time but will be likely to slow in the future. Extinction is a fact of life. Species have been developing and dying out since the start of life on earth.
This is called the evolution. However, the amount of endangered species is increasing rapidly nowadays. Previous mass extinctions obvious in the geological record are thought to have been caused mainly due to massive climatic or environmental shifts. Disappearance of species as a result of changes to the earth that are caused by nature or by the actions done by people. Sometimes natural disasters like a volcano eruption or a hurricane, cause that entire species are being wiped away.
Sometimes, extinctions happen slowly due to global changes that happen in nature. Humans can also cause the extinction of species.
The main reason that species are endangered or threatened nowadays is often because men make changes in their homes or habitats. So, food, sunlight and shelter. Every different species has to have a specific habitat to stay alive. On the other hand, a tropical birds need to have a tropical habitat like a rainforest to stay alive. Some species do very well in their new area, which sometimes causes that they endanger other species which already live there.
These are species are called native species The introduced species are called invasive species. When some fish are introduced into a lake or stream, for example, they may prey upon the native fish, or eat their food.
The native species may then have to find a new source of food or a new home, or they face to become endangered or extinct. Another way in which people harm species is by taking them from the wild. People might, for example catch an insect like a butterfly for their collection.
Others might keep a wild animal for a pet, or pick flowers because it is pretty. In addition, people illegally hunt animals for food supply or for their skin and fur. In the past, lots of animals like tigers, rhinos, elephants etc. Were hunted for their ivory teeth which were thought to have a healing ability or their fur. Pollution can affect wildlife as well and can even develop into extinction. If pesticides and other chemicals are not used well, they can poison plants and animals.
One of the animals that was harmed by pesticides, is the bald eagle. A pesticide DDT was used by many farmers in the past. Precipitation causes that the pesticides are washed into the lakes and streams, where it poisoned fish. The bald eagles would eat the fish and lay eggs with very thin shells. These eggs were often crushed before they could hatch.
There is an surplus of estimates and predictions of species that will get lost in future. It is hard to appreciate that the human population on earth increases over the last two centuries.
Biodiversity blossomlamar8.mlersity- is the degree of variation of life. It is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem variation, or species variation (number of species) within an area, biome, or planet.
Biodiversity means the species of life on our mother earth and the ecological processes that support the diversity of ecosystems. The goal of this research paper is to understand the importance of biodiversity and the effects of deforestation on biodiversity.
Biodiversity, or biological diversity, is a term coined to describe the immense variety and richness of life on this planet. Biodiversity includes not only the many species that exist, but also the diversity of populations that make up a species, the genetic diversity among individual life forms, and the many different habitats and ecosystems around the globe. Biodiversity blossomlamar8.mlersity- is the degree of variation of life. It is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem variation, or species variation (number .
Essay on Biodiversity Conservation Article shared by Our ecosystem involves complex interlocking of individual species which have evolved over millions of years. Overview of Biodiversity Essay - BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is made up of two words that is biological and diversity. Biological word is related to life and diversity is linked with variations or changes. In simple terms, we can say that biodiversity means the variations in life. Biodiversity is defined as whole life that exists on earth planet.